When moving around an area, it is important to be quiet and discrete. Not only does this increase your chances of actually seeing anything, but it reduces disturbance to your subject. Intentionally spooking an animal by shouting or throwing objects towards it can be more problematic than you might think. Not only is there an unnecessary energy expense in an animal’s flight response, but you could be scaring a parent bird away from a nesting site. It is not just the animals that you can disturb either, as countless times I have heard photographers complaining about having waited for hours in a public hide, only to be joined by someone who feels that they must talk at full volume to be heard. Showing respect to your peers is also important.
There are laws in place to protect wildlife, and they should always be obeyed. They apply to everyone, however careful you think you may be. Anyone who would even consider illegally approaching the nest of a protected bird, for example, is very unlikely to be able to spot the signs of distress that they are causing. The laws are there for a reason, and you could even cause a parent to abandon its young if you are not careful.
Similar to the above point, the use of sounds ( recorded bird song and calls being played to attract birds ) can disrupt the natural behaviour of birds. Some photographers and naturalists say that you should not use tape lures at all, as they cause birds to behave differently to normal and that is unethical. This also goes for using decoy models to lure males during the breeding season. Whatever your views are on the above, you should never use tape lures during breeding seasons as this can disrupt a bird’s normal patterns of behaviour. For example, when a male should be defending its territory from real intruders, it may instead spend its time trying to fend off the non-existent bird you are imitating.
Personally, I see no problem using dead bait (as long as it is ethically sourced (e.g. collecting roadkill for birds of prey) as long as it doesn’t put the animal harms way. Ask yourself if you are creating a demand for an animal to be killed in order to use it as bait. In fact, it can even be beneficial to provide supplementary food through the winter to certain animals. However, live bait is a big no, no. Whilst animals kill other animals naturally, it is not our place to sacrifice one for an image. This practice is greatly frowned upon in the photographic community. It is not worth doing, and an ethical image is far more rewarding than an unethical one. It is quick and easy to drag your own reputation through the mud by partaking in live baiting too.
It is sad that I have to write this point into this article, but there have been images floating around photo-sharing websites that make it necessary. Some photographers have been known to remove baby birds that are far too young to leave the nest, and position them photogenically on perches. The mother then comes to feed them outside the nest, and they capture what they believe is an incredible photo. To me, and many others, it is a disgusting photo that shows blatant disregard for the well-being of the birds. Not only that, but this disturbance is often illegal and should never be conducted.
If you are photographing an animal and it appears to be distressed, don’t continue to do so. A perfect example of this is when you spot a bird in a tree, and move closer to capture some images. If it begins to fly around you calling, it is likely you are near a nest and causing distress to the bird. Back away, and move elsewhere. Many birds can be legally photographed at the nest, but disturbing them to the extent they waste a lot of energy chasing you is still unethical. Instead, maybe you could position a pop-up hide at a distance from the nest. Leave it there for them to get used to, and quietly sneak into it after a week or so. You are then most likely to be able to photograph at your leisure with an undisturbed subject.